Appointments

Consultation with our oncologist


Dr Ranjini Pillai - MBBS, MD

If you notice any unusual or persistent changes to your body or health, the best person to speak to is our doctor. Please do not think that you might be wasting our time. We want to see you in our diagnostic centre. All you have to do is take an appointment

 

Cancer screening step to be followed?


  •  Take prior appointment at +91 484 2341441 or send an email to: Info@hitechcochin.com
  •  Report to main reception after overnight fasting
  •  Registration for screening
  •  Proceed to the 3rd floor of hi.tech(preventive oncology opd)
  •  Consultation with doctor
  •  Investigations

 

Written report may be collected or dispached or emailed to your inbox (in case of abnormal reports, please contact clinical team/preventive oncology team)


Visit us: Department of preventive oncology.

Third floor, hi.tech diagnostic center, palarivattom.

Consultation time: Every saturday 9 am to 2 pm.

Tel:  0484 2333888.

 

Facilities

Treadmill Test (TMT)s

TMT Test or Treadmill testing or cardiac stress testing is a non-invasive test, which is done to find the stress on the heart. The patient walks on a treadmill while the blood pressure and EKG are monitored. The treadmill test evaluates the heart's response to exercise.

The stress response is induced by exercise or drug stimulation. Cardiac stress tests compare the coronary circulation while the patient is at rest with the same patient's circulation observed during maximum physical exertion, showing any abnormal blood flow to the heart's muscle tissue (the myocardium). The results can be interpreted as a reflection on the general physical condition of the test patient. This test can be used to diagnose ischemic heart disease, and for patient prognosis after a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

The stress response is induced by exercise or drug stimulation. Cardiac stress tests compare the coronary circulation while the patient is at rest with the same patient's circulation observed during maximum physical exertion, showing any abnormal blood flow to the heart's muscle tissue (the myocardium). The results can be interpreted as a reflection on the general physical condition of the test patient. This test can be used to diagnose ischemic heart disease, and for patient prognosis after a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

Echocardiogram

TMT Test or Treadmill testing or cardiac stress testing is a non-invasive test, which is done to find the stress on the heart. The patient walks on a treadmill while the blood pressure and EKG are monitored. The treadmill test evaluates the heart's response to exercise.

Microbiology Lab

A Microbiology laboratory, or lab, is the primary place that a working Microbiologist not in the field can be found. It is in the lab that most of the testing, culturing, and research that they do occurs. This location contains the supplies and equipment needed for these activities, as well as provide an extremely clean, and sterile place to work.In order to understand what occurs in a microbiology lab, what a microbiologist does should be understood. A microbiologist studies very small life forms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. These life forms live everywhere — in the soil, in the air, in the water, and even inside animals. Many of these life forms are so small that they can not be seen by the unaided eye, and are called microorganisms. Often, a microbiologist will have to separate and grow the microorganisms in order to better see, study, and experiment on them. All of these activities occur in the lab.

Mammography

Mammography is the most useful method of diagnosing breast cancer at an early stage, much before the woman or a physician can identify any symptoms such a lump on the breast that can be felt, swelling, and shrinkage of the breast, nipple that is turned slightly inward and milky discharges or bleeding from the nipple. Mammography is commonly used as a protective measure for women, who have no apparent symptoms of breast cancer. The very objective of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or micro calcifications.

Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast, which is used as a diagnostic and screening tool. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or microcalcifications.

Like all X-rays, mammograms use doses of ionizing radiation to create images. Radiologists then analyze the images for any abnormal findings. It is normal to use lower-energy X-rays (typically Mo-K) than those used for radiography ofbones. Ultrasound, ductography, positron emission mammography (PEM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are adjuncts to mammography. Ultrasound is typically used for further evaluation of masses found on mammography or palpable masses not seen on mammograms. Ductograms are still used in some institutions for evaluation of bloody nipple discharge when the mammogram is non-diagnostic. MRI can be useful for further evaluation of questionable findings as well as for screening pre-surgical evaluation in patients with known breast cancer to detect any additional lesions that might change the surgical approach, for instance from breast-conserving lumpectomy to mastectomy. Other procedures being investigated include tomosynthesis.

PAP Smear

The PAP Smear, which screens for cervical cancer, is one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening tests available. The PAP Smear scans for pre-cancers, cell changes on the cervix that might turn out to be cervical cancer if they are not diagnosed and treated at the initial stages.

The Papanicolaou test (abbreviated as Pap test, known earlier as Pap smear, cervical smear, or smear test) is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the endocervical canal (transformation zone) of the female reproductive system. Unusual findings are often followed up by more sensitive diagnostic procedures, and, if warranted, interventions that aim to prevent progression to cervical cancer. The test was invented by and named after the prominent Greek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou.

A Pap smear is performed by opening the vaginal canal with a speculum, then collecting cells from the outer opening of the cervix of the uterus and the endocervix. The cells are examined under a microscope to look for abnormalities. The test aims to detect potentially pre-cancerous changes (called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical dysplasia), which are caused by sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses. The test remains an effective, widely used method for early detection of pre-cancer and cervical cancer. The test may also detect infections and abnormalities in the endocervix and endometrium. It remains the most common method of cervical screening in the United States, although the UK screening programmes changed their screening method to liquid-based cytology in 2008.

In the United States Pap smear screening is recommended starting around 21 years of age until the age of Guidelines on frequency vary from every three to five years. If results are abnormal, and depending on the nature of the abnormality, the test may need to be repeated in six to twelve months. If the abnormality requires closer scrutiny, the woman may be referred for detailed inspection of the cervix by colposcopy. The woman may also be referred  for which can serve as an adjunct to Pap testing. Additional biomarkers which may be applied as ancillary test with Pap test are evolving.

FNAC

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a procedure employed to investigate superficial lumps or masses in the diagnosis of cancer and inflammatory conditions. In FNAC test, a thin, empty needle is injected into the mass for sampling of cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope.

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB), or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses. In this technique, a thin, hollow needleis inserted into the mass for sampling of cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope. There could be cytology exam of aspirate (cell specimen evaluation, FNAC) or histological (biopsy - tissue specimen evaluation, FNAB).[1] Fine-needle aspiration biopsies are very safe, minor surgical procedures. Often, a major surgical (excisional or open) biopsy can be avoided by performing a needle aspiration biopsy instead. In 1981, the first fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the United States was done at Maimonides Medical Center, eliminating the need for surgery and hospitalization. Today, this procedure is widely used in the diagnosis of cancer and inflammatory conditions.

A needle aspiration biopsy is safer and less traumatic than an open surgical biopsy, and significant complications are usually rare, depending on the body site. Common complications include bruising and soreness. There is a risk, because the biopsy is very small (only a few cells), that the problematic cells will be missed, resulting in a false negative result. There is also a risk that the cells taken will not enable a definitive diagnosis.

Sysmex Machine

The Sysmex Machine is a haematology-automated analyser, used to quickly perform full blood counts and reticulocyte counts. It can be run on its own, or connected to a blood film making and staining unit. Racks of blood go in on a tray on the right, and come out the left side. The racks hold ten 4.5 mL tubes, and have a notch so they can only go in one way.

Many methods of introducing samples into the analyser have been invented. This can involve placing test tubes of sample into racks, which can be moved along a track, or inserting tubes into circular carousels that rotate to make the sample available. Some analysers require samples to be transferred to sample cups. However, the effort to protect the health and safety of laboratory staff has prompted many manufacturers to develop analysers that feature closed tube sampling, preventing workers from direct exposure to samples.

Samples can be processed singly, in batches, or continuously.

The automation of laboratory testing does not remove the need for human expertise (results must still be evaluated bymedical technologists and other qualified clinical laboratory professionals), but it does ease concerns about error reduction, staffing concerns, and safety.

Speciments With Barcode

Barcode specimen collection can virtually eliminate patient identification and specimen labeling errors during collection by removing all of the potential failure points. Wireless and barcode technology bring positive patient identification (PPID), positive specimen identification, and real-time specimen label printing to the bedside Here is how it works. The collector (phlebotomist, nurse, etc.) carries a portable label printer and a handheld computer capable of scanning barcodes. Nurses often opt to use laptops on mobile carts instead of handheld computers. The patient draw list displays on the screen. The collector scans the patient's barcoded wristband and documents the second identifier the patient provides. Once the patient's ID is positively confirmed, barcoded specimen labels print at the bedside. Specimens are then collected, labels are affixed, and the labeled tubes are scanned to complete the collection process. Patients and specimens are positively identified.

Johnson And Johnson VITROS 5600 Integrated Chemistry Analyzer

RARITAN, N.J. (July 22, 2011)  Ortho Clinical Diagnostics (OCD) today announced the launch of the VITROS® 5600 Integrated Chemistry Analyzer System, a state-of-the-art analyzer that delivers high-quality, reliable test results for mid- to high-volume laboratories using the same core technologies that drive reliability and efficiency throughout OCD?s portfolio of products. The new analyzer completes the VITROS® x600 Family of Systems, which includes the VITROS® 5600 Integrated System and the VITROS® 3600 Immunodiagnostic System. This portfolio of integrated instruments and broad, world-class menu of assays enable laboratories to deliver diagnostic results that help raise the standard of patient care in their institutions and networks.

OLYMPUS AU 400 -FULLY AUTO ANALYZER

The new AU 400 system is a fully automated, random access clinical chemistry analyser with all the benefits of Olympus Systems Compatibility. With a throughput of 400 photometric tests per hour the system provides high performance analysis, including STAT and ISE capability, in a compact package for small and medium size laboratories

X-Ray

X-Ray is a photographic or digital image of the internal composition of something, especially a part of the body, produced by X-rays being passed through it and being absorbed to different degrees by different materials.

where digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photographic film. Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Also less radiation can be used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography.

Instead of X-ray film, digital radiography uses a digital image capture device. This gives advantages of immediate image preview and availability; elimination of costly film processing steps; a wider dynamic range, which makes it more forgiving for over- and under-exposure; as well as the ability to apply special image processing techniques that enhance overall display of the image.

Digital Radiography

Digital radiography is a form of X-ray imaging, where digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photographic film.Digital radiology may represent the greatest technological advancement in medical imaging over the last decade. The use of radiographic films in x ray imaging might become obsolete in a few years. An appropriate analogy that is easy to understand is the replacement of typical film cameras with digital cameras. Images can be immediately acquired, deleted, modified, and subsequently sent to a network of computers.

The benefits from digital radiology are enormous. It can make a radiological facility or department filmless. The referring physician can view the requested image on a desktop or a personal computer and often report in just a few minutes after the examination was performed. The images are no longer held in a single location; but can be seen simultaneously by physicians who are kilometres apart. In addition, the patient can have the x ray images on a compact disk to take to another physician or hospital.

Colour Doppler Scan

Color Doppler uses standard ultrasound methods to produce a picture of a blood vessel. Also, a computer converts the Doppler sounds into colors that are overlaid on the image of the blood vessel and that represent the speed and direction of blood flow through the vessel.

 is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing internal body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible pathology orlesions. The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric sonography, and is widely used.

In physics, 'ultrasound' refers to sound waves with a frequency too high for humans to hear. Ultrasound images (sonograms) are made by sending a pulse of ultrasound into tissue using an ultrasound transducer (probe). The sound reflects (echoes) from parts of the tissue; these echoes are recorded and displayed as an image to the operator.

Many different types of images can be formed using ultrasound. The most well-known type is a B-mode image, which displays the acoustic impedance of a two-dimensional cross-section of tissue. Other types of image can display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissue, or theanatomy of a three-dimensional region.

Compared to other prominent methods of medical imaging, ultrasonography has several advantages. It provides images in real-time (rather than after an acquisition or processing delay), it is portable and can be brought to a sick patient's bedside, it is substantially lower in cost, and it does not use harmful ionizing radiation. Drawbacks of ultrasonography include various limits on its field of view including difficulty imaging structures behind bone and air, and its relative dependence on a skilled operator.

An Ultrasound Scan

Ultrasound is an oscillating sound pressure wave with a frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range. Ultrasound is thus not separated from 'normal' (audible) sound by differences in physical properties, only by the fact that humans cannot hear it. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.

Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasonic imaging (sonography) is used in both veterinary medicine and human medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning and for mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes. Animals such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles.

An ultrasound scan, also referred to as a sonogram, diagnostic sonography, and ultrasonography, is a device that uses high frequency sound waves to create an image of some part of the inside of the body, such as the stomach, liver, heart, tendons, muscles, joints and blood vessels.

Mammography

A mammogram is an x-ray examination of the breasts, used to detect and diagnose breast diseases. Mammography is the most effective method of detecting cancer at an early stage, before the woman or a physician can feel it.

A mammogram may be offered in a variety of settings. Hospitals, outpatient clinics, physician's offices, or other facilities may have mammography equipment. In the us only places certified by the Food and Drug Administration  are legally permitted to perform, interpret, or develop mammograms. Mammograms are taken with dedicated machines using high frequency generators, low kvp, molybdenum targets and specialized x ray beam filtration. Sensitive high contrast film and screen combinations along with prolonged developing enable the visualization of minute breast detail.

In addition to the usual paperwork, a woman will be asked to fill out a questionnaire asking for information on her current medical history. Beyond her personal and family history of cancer, details about menstruation, previous breast surgeries, child bearing, birth control, and hormone replacement therapy are recorded. Information about breast self-examination (BSE) and other breast health issues are usually available at no charge.

At some centers, a technologist may perform a physical examination of the breasts before the mammogram. Whether or not this is done, it is essential for the technologist to record any lumps, nipple discharge, breast pain or other concerns of the patient. All visible scars, tattoos and nipple alterations must be carefully noted as well.

Clothing from the waist up is removed, along with necklaces and dangling earrings. A hospital gown or similar covering is put on. A small self-adhesive metal marker may be placed on each nipple by the x ray technologist. This allows the nipple to be viewed as a reference point on the film for concise tumor location and easier centering for additional views.

PFT

Pulmonary function tests are a broad range of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and exhale air and how efficiently they transfer oxygen into the blood. Spirometry measures how well the lungs exhale.

Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body's circulation.

Spirometry measures airflow. By measuring how much air you exhale, and how quickly, spirometry can evaluate a broad range of lung diseases. In a spirometry test, while you are sitting, you breathe into a mouthpiece that is connected to an instrument called a spirometer. The spirometer records the amount and the rate of air that you breathe in and out over a period of time. When standing, some numbers might be slightly different. The most important issue is to perform the test always while at the same position.

For some of the test measurements, you can breathe normally and quietly. Other tests require forced inhalation or exhalation after a deep breath. Sometimes you will be asked to inhale the substance or a medicine to see how it changes your test results.

Echocardiogram

Cardiology (from Greek καρδ?? kardi?, "heart" and -λογ?α -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart be it human or animal. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists, a specialty of internal medicine. Pediatric cardiologists arepediatricians who specialize in cardiology. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons, a specialty of general surgery.

Cardiology deals with the disorder of the heart. Cardiology tests are clinical processes of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy, pathologic, heart functions.

To perform the most accurate and precise cardiology tests, at Hi. Tech, we have most modern equipment. Under the guidance of a doctor in-charge, the experienced as well as dedicated team of laboratory technicians of Hi. Tech is rendering a round the clock cardiology diagnostic facility to have an early detection of any kind of heart related diseases.

VITROS 5,1 FS FEATURES

  • Intuitive, easy-to-use and easy-to-train graphical user interface
  • On-board documentation (VDocs) with animated help
  • e-Connectivity Interactive System Management for proactive diagnostics and updates
  • 160 samples on board and a dedicated STAT lane
  • Disposable tip metering
  • Repeat, reflex and dilution testing
  • Up to 6-month calibration stability
  • True workflow consolidation with 80 tests on board (45 MicroSlide, 35 MicroTip) and 125 Reagent positions
  • Single-use disposable electrodes (Direct Potentiometry)
  • Parallel processing of routine and special tests for uncompromised workflow
  • MicroSensor sample quality indices
  • Reagentless, no additional sample volume requirements and no impact on productivity
  • True workflow consolidation with 80 tests on board (45 MicroSlide, 35 MicroTip) and 125 Reagent positions
  • 10 user-defined applications
  • No water, plumbing, drains, fixed probes or mixing assemblies

HLC 723 GX HBA1c

FEATURES

  • Based on gold standard HPLC technology
  • Fully automated analyzer minimizes operator intervention
  • Fast results in 2.2 minutes
  • Inter-assay and intra-assay CV< 2% for HbA1c allowing excellent patient management
  • Primary tube sampling with cap piercing
  • Barcode reader for sample identification
  • Offers flexibility to meet laboratory's requirements
  • Different types and sizes of primary tubes as well as secondary tubes can be loaded
  • Bi-directional communication possibility
  • User friendly operations to minimize operator error
  • Reliable and precise results
  • Easy and intuitive software
  • Touch screen operations
  • Based on reference method used in the DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial)
  • NGSP and IFCC certified

VITROS 5600 INTEGRATED SYSTEM

Laboratories are constantly under pressure to produce faster, higher-quality results, even under increased demands. The VITROS® 5600 is an integrated system that brings together 5 proven technologies designed to remove the obstacles to reducing turnaround time and increasing your ability to provide meaningful results. 150 reagent positions that allow 100+ assays onboard at once. Operators can change reagents, consumables, and waste without stopping operations. The system is ready for point-in-space automation with minimal modifications to meet growing testing needs.

ARCHITECT i1000 SR

CMIA  technology used. streamlined workload management; continuous access to reagents, samples, and supplies; 65-sample load capacity; 13 universal bays, 7 customizable priority bays; refrigerated reagent carousel with 25 × 100 test-kit sizes; reagents stable onboard up to 30 days; priority tests; 18-minute turnaround time on stat assays

SYSMEX XP 100

  • Accurate and reliable results up to 20 parameters (both in WB and PD mode)
  • Distinct Neutrophil population provides clinical screening for bacterial infection
  • Simple to operate with user friendly illustrated icons and color touch screen

SYSMEX XN 550

The XN-550 features an automated sampler and so improves workflow productivity with its Rerun & Reflex functionality and continuous loading feature. This model also has an integrated IPU and is operated via a compact LCD colour touchscreen. XN-550 incorporates the proven Sysmex technologies of fluorescence flow cytometry, hydrodynamic focussing and our cyanide-free SLS method for determining haemoglobin. Ready for the future, it can be upgraded by adding new clinical and productivity values, or by opting for further professional services and connecting to our Extended IPU as your demands change.

Treadmill Test (TMT)

TMT Test or Treadmill testing or cardiac stress testing is a non-invasive test, which is done to find the stress on the heart. The patient walks on a treadmill while the blood pressure and EKG are monitored. The treadmill test evaluates the heart's response to exercise.

he stress response is induced by exercise or drug stimulation. Cardiac stress tests compare the coronary circulation while the patient is at rest with the same patient's circulation observed during maximum physical exertion, showing any abnormal blood flow to the heart's muscle tissue (the myocardium). The results can be interpreted as a reflection on the general physical condition of the test patient. This test can be used to diagnose ischemic heart disease, and for patient prognosis after a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

The cardiac stress test is done with heart stimulation, either by exercise on a treadmill, pedalling a stationary exercise bicycle ergometer or with intravenous pharmacological stimulation, with the patient connected to anelectrocardiogram (or ECG). People who cannot use their legs may exercise with a bicycle-like crank that they turn with their arms.

 

ECG

An electrocardiogram (ECG) records the electrical activity of the heart. The heart produces tiny electrical impulses, which spread through the heart muscle to make the heart contract. These impulses can be detected by the ECG machine.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG[1] from Greek: kardia, meaning heart[2]) is the recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Traditionally this is in the form of a transthoracic (across the thorax or chest) interpretation of the electricalactivity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the surface of the skin and recorded or displayed by a device external to the body.[3] The recording produced by this noninvasive procedure is termed anelectrocardiogram (also ECG or EKG). It is possible to record ECGs invasively using an implantable loop recorder.

An ECG is used to measure the heart’s electrical conduction system. It picks up electrical impulses generated by the polarization and depolarization of cardiac tissue and translates into a waveform. The waveform is then used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart, such as a pacemaker.

Most ECGs are performed for diagnostic or research purposes on human hearts, but may also be performed on animals, usually for diagnosis of heart abnormalities or research.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

(EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain. It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp, although invasive electrodes are sometimes used such as in within the neurons of the brain.[1] In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a period of time,[1] as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus either on event-related potentials or on the spectral content of EEG. The former investigates potential fluctuations time locked to an event like stimulus onset or button press. The latter analyses the type of neural oscillations (popularly called "brain waves") that can be observed in EEG signals in the frequency domain.

EEG is most often used to diagnose epilepsy, which causes abnormalities in EEG readings.[2] It is also used to diagnose sleep disorders, depth of anesthesia, coma, encephalopathies, and brain death. EEG used to be a first-line method of diagnosis for tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders,[3][4] but this use has decreased with the advent of high-resolution anatomical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Despite limited spatial resolution, EEG continues to be a valuable tool for research and diagnosis. It is one of the few mobile techniques available and offers millisecond-range temporal resolution which is not possible with CT, PET or MRI.

Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials (ERPs) refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

EMG involves recording electrical activity of nerve and muscles. It involves inserting a needle in a skeletal muscle and changes produced during relaxation and physical activity are recorded either on a magnetic tape or on paper EMG is of use in cases of muscle disorders like myopathy, motor neuron disease.Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram.

An electromyograph detects the electrical potential generated by musclecells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect medical abnormalities, activation level, or recruitment order or to analyze the biomechanics of human or animal movement.

An electromyogram, also called EMG and electromyography, is a test that evaluates electrical activity within your nerves and muscles. Your doctor may recommend an EMG to help diagnose muscle weakness, muscular dystrophy, and other neuromuscular abnormalities. An EMG involves inserting tiny needles into your muscles to record electrical activity.

An EMG is only one method used to diagnose neuromuscular abnormalities. You may have less invasive testing options depending on your condition. Discuss all your diagnostic options with your doctor to understand which options are best for you.

 

 

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. Patches called surface electrodes are placed on the skin over nerves at various locations. Each patch gives off a very mild electrical impulse, which stimulates the nerve.The test results of both EMG and NCV are given with the detailed reports of Dr. Gigy Kuruttukulam, Lakshore Hospital.

is a medical diagnostic test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction, of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body. These tests are performed by medical specialists such as specialists in clinical neurophysiology, physiatrists (physical medicine and rehabilitation [PMR] physicians), and neurologists who subspecialize in electrodiagnostic medicine. In the United States, neurologists receive training in electrodiagnostic medicine (performing needle electromyography and NCSs) during a fellowship in clinical neurophysiology, electrodiagnostic medicine, or neuromuscular medicine.[1][2] PMR physicians receive this training during their residency and can get further training in a neuromuscular fellowship. Outside the US, clinical neurophysiologists learn needle EMG and NCS testing.

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a common measurement made during this test. The term NCV often is used to mean the actual test, but this may be misleading, since velocity is only one measurement in the test suite.

SYSMEX UF 1000i

Flow cytometry, the UF-1000i offers two separate channels: one for bacteria and one for sediment particles. This means you can now detect possible urinary tract infections in about one minute instead of hours, and at a rate of up to 100 samples/hour. And with its other diagnostic indicators, you can easily indicate contaminations, inflammations, bacterial and mycotic infections.

Types of Cancer - Men

10 Most Common Types Of Cancer In Men

Men are more at risk of virtually all the general cancers that affect both genders. The rates at which, men getting cancer is mounting at alarming pace. However, in most of the cases the cancer symptoms in men are often blurred and very hard to detect. Though, prostate cancer and testicular cancer are widespread in men, these two types of the caners are not the only cancers that affect men. Men are more prone to get cancer because of smoking, environmental pollution, asbestos, radiation etc.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Coughing, especially if it persists or becomes intense
  • Pain in the chest, shoulder, or back
  • A change in color or volume of sputum
  • Shortness of breath
  • Changes in the voice or being hoarse
  • Harsh sounds with each breath (stridor)
  • Recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia
  • Blood stained phlegm or mucus
  • Coughing up blood

Causes:

  • Smoking active & passive
  • Environmental pollution
  • Asbestos
  • Radiation
     

Oral cancer

Oral cavity cancers include the cancers of the tongue, cheek, gums, roof of mouth (palate) floor of mouth and area under the tongue.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Ulceration, which does not heal after 4 weeks in the mouth
  • Red or white patches in the mouth
  • Swelling anywhere in the mouth
  • Other symptoms include loose teeth, unusual bleeding from the mouth, pain while swallowing or chewing, feeling that something is stuck in the throat.

Causes:

  • They are commonly seen in persons with the habit of chewing pan, betel leaf, or tobacco.
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Human papilloma virus infection
  • Precancerous lesions; leukoplakia (white patches in the mouth)

Screening:

  • Screening for oral cancer involves a clinical examination and thorough inspection of all sites to rule out any premalignant changes.

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer refers to cancers arising in the large intestineor colon and the rectum (the lowest part of the digestive tract)


Prostate cancer

Cancer of the prostate gland is seen in men. The prostate gland is located below the bladder and surrounds the urethra.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Difficulty or straining in passing urine
  • Weak and interrupted flow of urine
  • Incomplete voiding
  • Increased frequency of passing urine
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • These symptoms can also be senn in benign prostatic hypertrophy and urinary tract infections. Please consult a doctor to rule out cancer.

Screening:

  • Psa is blood test used to detect prostate cancer. Dre (digital rectal examination) can also pick up prostate cancer. If either of these a tests are abnormal further test needs to be done to detect the presence of cancer. Psa is recommended for those over the age of 50 years or earlier if there is a family h/o prostate cancer.
  • However, routine screening is no longer recommended as there are certain limitations. Both psa and dre are not 100% accurate. These tests can be positive even if the person does not have cancer (false positive results) or the test can be normal when the person has cancer (false negative result) also prostate cancer is very slow growing cancer. If doctors detect prostate cacner early, they may not be able to tell if the cancer is truly dangerous or not or even whether it should be immediately treated or can be kept under observation. This creates a lot of unwanted anxiety in the patients.

Consult a doctor before doing psa.


Liver cancer

Liver cancer occurs when cells in the liver undergo mutation and form cancer.

Risc factor:

  • Family h/o liver cancer
  • Diseases of the liver like cirrhosis, hepatitis b or hepatitis c
  • Regular or frequent consumption of alcohol
  • Exposure to certain chemicals like nitrites, solvents, vinylchloride
  • Consumption of spoilt or mouldy nuts, which contain a substance, called aflatoxin produced by a fungus.

Screening:

  • Routine screening is not recommended in all patients. Annual ultrasound is recommended in high risk patients (those with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis b or c) as they have a higher chance of developing cancer.
     

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a term used to describe all cancers of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is made up of lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, which are part of the immune system of the body.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Painless and enlarged swelling of the lymph glands of the neck, armpits, or groin
  • Unexplained fever
  • Drenching night sweats
  • Unexplained weight loss (>10% of the body weight)

 Routine screening for lymphoma is currently not recommended


Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer develops from the inner lining or mucosa of the stomach.it is usually detected at a later stage as there may not be many symptoms in the early stage.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Persistent heartburn or gastritis
  • Sense of fullness or bloating even after a small meal
  • Blackish colour stools
  • Unexplained weight loss and loss of appetite
  • Routine screening for stomach cancer is not recommended however if you have any of the above symptoms please consult a specialist

Leukemia

Leukemia is a general term for cancer affecting the blood forming cells in the marrow and lymphatic system. It starts in the white blood cells and affects the immune system.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Persistent fever
  • Frequent infections
  • Fatigue, unexplained weight loss
  • Bleeding gums, purple patches or red spots on the skin

Screening:

  • Routine screening for leukemia is not recommended however if you have any of the above symptoms please consult a specialist
     

Larynx vocal codes

Cancer of the vocal cord usually is detected in the early stage as patients present with a change in the voice or hoarseness of voice lasting for > 3-4 weeks. No routine screening is recommended.


Esophagus

Esophagus or food pipe transfers food from the mouth to the stomach.  Esophageal cancer can affect any part of the esophagus lower middle or upper third.

Symptoms:

  • Swallowing difficulty, feels like the food is stuck in the throat or chest. This gets worse with initial difficulty in swallowing solid food and later progressing to liquids also as the growth gets larger and the esophageal opening becomes more narrow
  • Chest pain or burning
  • Weight loss
  • Routine screening is not recommended.

Types of Cancer - Women

10 most common types of cancer in women

When compared to men’s anatomy, female bodily makeup is more susceptible to various kinds of cancers. The abrupt hormonal variations and menopause bring changes in the women's body. Most of the time, the changes remain unnoticed however; the changes that seem normal could be signs of cancer. The cancers that most often affect women are breast, colorectal, endometrial, lung, cervical, skin, and ovarian cancers.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in kerala.

Click here to view more details


Thyroid cancer

In kerala, as per thiruvananthapuram hospital based cancer registry thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women in kerala.

Risc factor:

Gender and age: Women are 3 times more at risk for developing thyroid cancer than men for unclear reasons. Thyroid cancer can occur at any age however, it is more common in 30-50 age groups.

Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can increase the risk of thyroid cancer especially in the following circumstances

A) people who have been treated for hodgkin’s lymphoma and received radiation to the chest wall in childhood or adolescent period.

B) nuclear disaster (hiroshima nagasaki, chernobyl)

Diet low in iodine: Iodine is needed for normal function of the thyroid gland. Iodised salt is advised for this purpose.

Family history and genetics

Medullary thyroid cancer is seen to be associated with an abnormal gene called ret protooncogene. It is commonly seen in a group of disorders call men syndrome (multiple endocrine neoplasia)

Sign and symptoms:

  • Swelling or lump in the neck sometimes growing rapidly
  • Pain in the front of the neck
  • Hoarseness or change in voice lasting for >3 weeks
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Breathing difficulty

Screening:

  • Routine screening is not recommended however if you notice any abnormal swelling in the neck please report to a physician immediately
     

Cervical cancer

What is cervix?

The cervix is the lower third portion of the uterus in the human female reproductive system. The narrow, central cervical canal runs along its entire length, connecting the uterine cavity and the lumen of the vagina. During a menstrual period, discharges flow from the uterus through the cervix into the vagina. The cervix produces mucus and during intercourse, mucus produced in cervix helps sperm moving from the vagina through the cervix into the uterus. During pregnancy, the cervix is firmly clogged to keep the baby inside the uterus. During delivery, the cervix opens up allowing the baby to pass through the vagina.

What cause cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer starts in cells on the surface of the cervix. Over time, the cervical cancer can spread more severely into the cervix and nearby tissues. Cervical cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the cervical tumor. They can pass through lymph vessels to nearby lymph nodes. In addition, cancer cells can spread through the blood vessels to the lungs, liver, or bones.
Human papilloma virus (hpv) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking. Other risk factors include human immunodeficiency virus. Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known, however, several other contributing factors have been implicated. Human papilloma virus type 16 and 18 are the cause of 75% of cervical cancer globally while 31 and 45 are the cause of another 10%. Women who have many sexual partners or who have sex with men who have had many other partners have a greater risk of developing cervical cancer.

Symptoms:

The initial phases of cervical cancer may be entirely devoid of symptoms. Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding, a vaginal mass may indicate the presence of growth. Also, moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge are symptoms of cervical cancer. Loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, swollen legs, bone fractures, leakage of urine or feces from the vagina are the symptoms of advanced cervical cancer.

What can be done for early detection?

  • The pap smear, which screens for cervical cancer, is one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening tests available. The pap smear scans for pre-cancers, cell changes on the cervix that might turn out to be cervical cancer if they are not diagnosed and treated at the initial stages.
     
  • The pap smear is recommended  for all women between the ages of 21 and 65 years old. The doctor widens the vagina of the examinee, using plastic or metal instrument, called a speculum, which helps the doctor to inspect the vagina and the cervix, and collect a few cells and mucus from the cervix and the area around it. The cells are placed on a slide or in a bottle of liquid and sent to a laboratory for further screening. When pap smear test is performed, the doctor may also perform a pelvic exam, checking the uterus, ovaries, and other organs to make sure that there are no symptoms of whatsoever.

Pap smear

The pap smear, which screens for cervical cancer, is one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening tests available. The pap smear scans for pre-cancers, cell changes on the cervix that might turn out to be cervical cancer if they are not diagnosed and treated at the initial stages.

The pap smear is recommended for all women between the ages of 21 and 65 years old. The doctor widens the vagina of the examinee, using plastic or metal instrument, called a speculum, which helps the doctor to inspect the vagina and the cervix, and collect a few cells and mucus from the cervix and the area around it. The cells are placed on a slide or in a bottle of liquid and sent to a laboratory for further screening. When pap smear test is performed, the doctor may also perform a pelvic exam, checking the uterus, ovaries, and other organs to make sure there are no symptoms of whatsoever.

 


Fnac

Fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) is a procedure employed to investigate superficial lumps or masses in the diagnosis of cancer and inflammatory conditions. In fnac test, a thin, empty needle is injected into the mass for sampling of cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope.

Fnac is an easy, speedy, and reasonably priced method that is used to examine the superficial masses like those found in the neck, breast etc performed in the outpatient clinic. Fnac carries virtually no risk of complications, causing nominal pain to the patient. Through the test, masses placed within the region of the head and neck, including salivary gland and thyroid gland lesions can be readily diagnosed using this technique.

Fine-needle aspiration biopsies are very secure with minor surgical procedures, eliminating the need for surgery and hospitalization. Often, a major open surgical biopsy can be avoided, conducting a needle aspiration biopsy instead.

 


Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women in kerala. This cancer is usually detected late, as it does not produce any symptoms in the early stage.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Bloating and swelling of the abdomen
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Change in bowel habits
  • Unexplained weight loss

Risc factor:

Having a close relative either mother or sister with ovarian cancer or breast cancer.
Age > 50 years
Early onset of menstruation
Late menopause

Screening:

Even though routine screening is not recommended as of now, those with high risk, eg family h/o breast or ovarian cancer should consult a physician and have an annual check up as recommended.


Oral cancer

Oral cavity cancers include the cancers of the tongue, cheek, gums, roof of mouth (palate) floor of mouth (area under the tongue).

Risc factor:

  • They are commonly seen in persons with the habit of chewing pan, betel leaf or tobacco.
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Human papilloma virus infection
  • Precancerous lesions; leukoplakia (white patches in the mouth

Sign and symptoms:

  • Ulceration, which does not heal after 4 weeks in the mouth
  • Red or white patches in the mouth
  • Swelling anywhere in the mouth.
  • Human papilloma virus infection
  • Other symptoms include loose teeth, unusual bleeding from the mouth, pain while swallowing or chewing, feeling that something is stuck in the throat.

Screening:

  • Screening for oral cancer involves a clinical examination and thorough inspection of all sites to rule out any premalignant changes.
     

Leukemia

Leukemia is a general term for cancer affecting the blood forming cells in the marrow and lymphatic system. It starts in the white blood cells and affects the immune system.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Persistent fever
  • Frequent infections
  • Fatigue, unexplained weight loss
  • Bleeding gums, purple patches or red spots on the skin

Screening:

  • Bleeding gums, purple patches or red spots on the skin
     

Endometrium or uterine cancer

Cancer of the uterus or the womb starts from the lining of the uterine cavity. The most common type is called endometrial cancer.

Risc factor:

  • Age >50 years
  • Obesity
  • Hormone replacement therapy for menopause
  • H/o taking tamopxifen for breast caner

Symptoms:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding ie, any bleeding after menopause, heavy bleeding between periods
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Please consult a gynecologist as these symptoms are usually seen in begining conditions however malignancy should be ruled out.
     

Colorectal

Colorectal cancer refers to cancers arising in the large intestine or colon and the rectum (the lowest part of the digestive tract)

Risc factors:

  • Family h/o colorectal cancers
  • H/o ulcerative colitis or crohns disease
  • H/o colonic polyps
  • Lifestyle factors: Diet rich in fats and low in fiber

Sign and symptoms:

  • Change in bowel habit either persistent diarrhea or constipation or alternating diarrhea and constipation
  • Blood and mucus in stools
  • Generalized abdominal discomfort like bloatedness, fullness, and cramps feeling of incomplete emptying of bowels

Screening:

  • Those aged >50 years fobt (fecal occult blood test) and dre (digital rectal exam) annually.
  • Colonoscopy every 10 ten years starting at age of 50 years. (this is done by a gastroenterologist. We do not provide this test here)
  • If high risk (family h/o colorectal cancer or colonic polyps) screening should start even earlier

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a term used to describe all cancers of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is made up of lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, which are part of the immune system of the body.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Painless and enlarged swelling of the lymph glands of the neck, armpits, or groin
  • Unexplained fever
  • Drenching night sweats
  • Unexplained weight loss(>10% of the body weight)
  • Routine screening for lymphoma is currently not recommended

 

Screening

Screening

The stereotypical notion that we have about cancer screening is that the moment screening tests are prescribed by medical practitioners, we are scared that we might have cancer. Instead, it is to simply to reassure you of the fact that you have no clinically evident features of cancer. The sole objective of cancer screening is to trim down the number of people who develop and die because of the alarming rates of various cancers.


What screening is?

Screening is a clinical process to check for the conditions that could trigger cancer in people, who have no visible symptoms of cancer. Cancer screening is all about bringing everyone under thorough clinical examinations, even the so-called healthy people, with the objective of detecting cancerous conditions before the symptoms become apparent. Normally, cancer treatment is more effective when the disease is detected early. Nevertheless, not all types of cancer have specific screening tests to have an early detection of the symptoms of cancer. The common screening tests involve,imaging tests, laboratory tests, full clinical body check-up, mammography, computed tomography (ct) scans, pap smear and hpv testing, prostate-specific antigen (psa) test, fnac etc.


Who should be sreened?

Neither cancer keeps a calendar of its own nor does it have a long list of chosen people, who should have cancer. Irrespective of gender, physical conditions, health, geographical area, anyone can be affected with cancer at any point of time. The majority of cancer cases are not hereditary, i.e. The disease is not inherited. By pure chance, many cases of common cancers such as breast, colon and lung cancers can appear to run in a family. The personal risk could depend on factors such as one’s age, family history of cancer, and one’s tendency to inherit cancer genes. These are beyond our control. Other risk factors are one’s lifestyle, diets, smoking habit, and environmental exposures.


Does sreening save life?

To a great extent, with an early detection of cancer many lives can be saved. Cancer screening tests help in finding cancer at an initial stage itself, much before the cancer symptoms really become apparent. When the abnormal division of tissues is found at the very beginning stage itself, it will be easier to treat the cancer. By the time, the particular person comes across the cancer symptoms of his body; it would have drastically grown and spread into the other parts of the body, leaving it incurable with any kind of possible medication. Therefore, cancer-screening programmes have pivotal role to play in our constant fight against cancer and its annihilation.  


Can all cancers by screened?

No, all types of cancers cannot be screened, however the common cancers like breast cancer ,cervical cancer ,oral cancer and prostate cancer can be picked up by regular screening. Screening tests are helpful, safe, and affordable with adequately low rates, giving positive results. If signs of cancer are detected, more state-of-the-art, and invasive, follow-up tests are performed to reach a final and accurate diagnosis. Screening can detect cancer at an early stage. For most cancers, early detection means that treatments are more facile and have a higher chance of success.

The common screening tests involve, imaging tests, laboratory tests, full clinical body check-up, mammograms, computed tomography (ct) scans, pap and hpv testing, prostate-specific antigen (psa) test, fnac etc.

FAQ

What cancer is…

Cancer is a medical term used for diseases in which abnormal cells in an organ or bodily part get divided without control, with a lump or a tumor in the particular area affected. The abnormal cells attack other tissues, causing the rapid spread of the cancer within organ or to various parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Cancer is not just one disease but can cause many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancers. Most of the cancers are named after the organ or type of cell in which they are affected with.


Is cancer is heridetary

There is a high probability for a person getting cancer whose parents were affected by cancer. The cancer that are inherited are; breast cancer, colon cancer and lung cancer. However, majority of the cancer diseases are not inherited.


What are cancer risk factor?

Your personal risk of getting affected by cancer are; your age, tobacco, sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals and other substances, some viruses and bacteria, certain hormones, family history of cancer, alcohol, poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight.


Is cancer curable?

Any form of cancer is curable to an extent, if it can be detected at the initial stages and get it clinically treated. It can be detected through periodical clinical examination and self-examination. If any unusual growth or lump is noticed in your body, you shall immediately rush for a clinical check up to make sure that you are not affected.


Is cancer contagious?

Your stereotypical notion about cancer is wrong. You shall not be scared that cancer is not contagious as you are misled. A healthy person cannot get cancer from someone who has it. There is no clinical evidence that proves that close contact such as sex, kissing, touching, sharing meals, or breathing the same air can spread cancer from one person to another.


What cause cancer?

Any physiological and chemical changes within the body can trigger a normal body cell to develop abnormally, causing cancer. The causes of cancer diseases remain unknown while other cancers may develop from more than one known cause and many other unknown causes. In some people, there is high probability to inherit the cancer genes from their parents, because that is how their genetic makeup is. Virtually, it is impossible to determine the initiating factors that cause a cancer to develop in a specific person.


What are sign and symptoms of cancer?

There are no specific symptoms and signs for cancer, it differs from person to person, and the different kinds of cancer diseases one is affected with. Cancer symptoms and signs depend on the specific type and grade of cancer; general signs and symptoms are not very specific but are: Fever, fatigue, weight loss, pain, skin changes, change in bowel or bladder function, unusual bleeding, persistent cough or voice change, lumps, or tissue masses.


Which are most common forms of cancer in females?

The most common cancers found in females are: Breast cancer, cervix cancer, thyroid cancer, ovary cancer, oral cancer, leukemia, brain cancer, colorectal and uterine cancer.


Which are most common forms of cancer in male

The most common cancers found in males are lung cancer, oral cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, lymphoma, stomach cancer, leukemia, larynx vocal cords and esophagus.


Why screening importent?

Periodical clinical screenings always help the detection of cancer at the initial stage itself and help you to undergo the required treatment, thus, cancer can be kept at bay. A person, who bibles with energy, may have some unobserved bodily changes and symptoms, within the body, that could eventually become cancerous. In any such unbecoming conditions, undergoing various screening tests will detect the abnormal changes and symptoms before them being turned out to be cancer growth.


How is cancer diagnosed?

Through a thorough clinical examination, symptoms and signs of cancer can be detected. A physical exam and medical history of the person, especially the history of symptoms, are the first steps in screening cancer.


What are the common cancer screening done for men?

Through complete physical examination by oncologist, complete blood count, prostate specific antigen, creatinine, liver function test, urine routine exam, usg abdomen + pelvis and chest x-ray common symptoms and signs of cancer among men can be diagnosed.


What are the common cancer screening done for female?

The common symptoms and signs of cancer among women can be diagnosed through complete physical examination by oncologist, complete blood count, pap smear, stool-occult blood, mammogram, usg abdomen + pelvis, urea & creatinine and liver function test.


How often cancer screening should be done?

It is highly advised that at least once in a year, people should undergo a thorough clinical screening. Do not just relay on the periodical clinical screening alone, apart from that, both men and women should do their self-examination frequently and upon finding any kind of unusual growth or lump on the body parts, it shall be immediately brought under an expert medical screening than waiting for the next periodical screening scheduled.

Brest Self Exam

Regular breast self-examination by women themselves is a very good way of detecting breast cancer in an early stage. Adult women of all ages are encouraged to perform breast self-exams at least once in a month. Detecting a cancer when it is in the very early stage can improve the cure rate from breast cancer.

Stand in front of a mirror, inspect both breasts for anything unusual, such as any discharge from the nipples, puckering, dimpling, or scaling of the skin.

The next two steps are designed to emphasise any change in the shape or co-tour of your breasts. You should be able to feel your breast muscles tighten while doing these steps.


Watching close in the mirror, clasp hands behind your head and press hands forward.


Next, press hands firmly on hips and bow slightly toward your mirror as you  pull your shoulders and elbows forward.

Some women do steps 4 and 5 in the shower. Fingers glide over soapy skin, making it easy to concentrate on the texture underneath.


Raise your left arm. Use three or four fingers of your right hand to explore your left breast firmly, carefully, and thoroughly. Beginning at the outer edge, press the flat part of your fingers in small circles, moving the circles slowly around the breast. Gradually work toward the nipple. Be sure to cover the entire breast. Pay special attention to the area between the breast and the armpit, including the armpit itself. Feel for any unusual lump or mass under the skin. Repeat the exam on your right breast as well.


Gently squeeze each nipple and look for a discharge or bleeding


Steps 4 and 5 should be repeated laying down. Lie flat on your back, right arm over your head and a pillow or folded towel under your left shoulder. This position flattens the breast and makes it easier to examine. Use the same circular motion described earlier. Repeat on your right breast as well.


40% of diagnosed breast cancers are detected by women, who felt a lump on their either of the breasts, so establishing a regular breast self-exam is very important. Breast self-exams help you to be familiar with how your breasts look and feel so you can alert your healthcare professional if there are any changes.

 

Check Up Packages - Men

Basic screening package

Price - Rs.2000

Complete screening package

Price - Rs.2400

Check Up Packages - Women

Complete screening package

Price - Rs.4000

Basic screening package

Price - Rs.2450

Breast care

Price - Rs.1100

Breast care plus package

Price - Rs.1800

Home Visit For Blood Collection

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